Tuesday, 7 July 2009

(Becoming a) Git

I wanted to learn something new. I hadn't had much exposure to distributed version control systems. So took the plunge and installed git. Throwing caution to the wind, I relied on it immediately for critical project work. It was an interesting, and not entirely unpleasant experience.

I chose git for a couple of reasons:
  • people I knew had been using it, and gave me favourable reports
  • it has good svn (Subversion) integration

  • I know people who favour bzr (Bazaar). However, git seems the more powerful puppy, and the one that might teach me more overall.

    So far, I think that git is a very, very good tool. However, even though it's becoming more mature, it is not a friendly beast and not for the timid.

    Becoming distributed

    There are plenty of good articles floating around the net that describe the advantages of DVCS over the traditional centralised model. It makes a lot of sense. Even so, centralised version control isn't going anywhere soon.

    The main advantage of git for me is the svn integration. My project's repository is held on the other side of the Atlantic and I'm attached to it by a thin wet string, so access times to the repository are pitifully poor. Running something like git provides me with a local mirror so query operations are far faster, and I have the ability to make "local" checkins that are versioned but not yet pushed up to the central svn for public consumption.

    Both of these are neat tricks.

    Installation

    I've installed git on Linux, MacOS and Windows. Naturally, the Linux install was the easiest. I pulled it in through Kubuntu's package manager, and everything worked swimmingly.

    The Windows port is interesting. Since Windows is not sufficiently Unix-like to run Git in any sane way, the nice Windows distributors ship with a minimal bash environment. For this old Unix-head it's a wonderfully useful thing, and saves me reaching for cygwin so much. It might be a bit of a bodge, but I like it.

    I'm doing most of my work on Mac OS at the moment. There are a few ways to get git on the mac, but the Git on MacOS installer project seems to most sensible (at least, at first glance). It works well enough, however, its still not running perfectly for me. The svn integration is bust. The git svn dcommit script doesn't complete correctly. After each subversion commit the tool needs to do a git svn rebase. However its internal script paths are incorrect and this always generates an error. So you have to manually git svn rebase to sort it all out. If you forget to do this all sorts of chaos ensue as repos get out of date, and not all of your changes propagate upstream.

    Using git

    Like most DVCS you certainly have to have some kind of idea what's going on before you dive straight into git usage. Git has a quite steep learning curve, and it's documentation is still not at the same level as other tools, no matter what you may hear from other people. Many problems must be resolved by Google searches rather than looking in the "git book".

    General git workflows are simple and pleasant, though. To this old Subversion-head, the idea of staging the changes you will make prior to checking them in at first seemed clunky. However, after a few commits I have really come to like the workflow. And the fact you can cherry pick individual parts of a file to commit is very neat indeed.

    The git stash is also a cute feature, allowing you to temporarily park the changes your working on (effectively in a short-lived temporary branch), to do something else, and then to reapply your changes once you're ready to come back to them.

    Tool support is a lot sparser than other version control systems. The command line distributions all ship with a Tcl/Tk application called gitk which is remarkable useful and powerful, albeit crap-to-look-at in an early 1980s stylee. On the mac there is gitx which is cute, but not quite as powerful as gitk.

    Complex merges seem harder to resolve in git than other systems, but this might entirely be because of a lack of understanding on my part. There is a lot more power under the hood, that for sure. But it makes harnessing it a struggle. But this is a feature: git was not designed for idiots.

    It's discomforting to come from a place where you know your version control tool inside out to a place of relative ignorance. But it's Good For You to make this jump every now and again. It puts hairs on your chest. (If you're female, you might not want to do this too often, then.)

    SVN integration

    Apart from the Mac install issue, I've mostly found using git as a local svn mirror to be remarkably effective.

    I have found, however, that its best to keep each git repository separate, each a clone of the main svn repo. I have a number of machines which I build the code on. I'd initially hoped to make one svn clone repo, then clone repos on the other machines based on that one git clone. The clones work OK, but pushing back the changes appears to cause all sorts of confusion and lead to some bogus git svn dcommits at the top of the git tree.

    This problem became so bad that I gave up on the idea of a fan-out repository structure, and just cloned each repo from svn individually on each machine. This seems lumpy, and does mean there's more trans-atlantic svn traffic than I'd like. I believe that Bazaar is much better in this respect, but would like to hear it confirmed by someone more knowledgable.

    The future is bright. The future is git.

    I've had a few hiccups along the way, but I'm happy enough to keep going with git. There are plenty of advanced use cases I've yet to encounter, and I dread and look forward to the pain in equal measure.

    Git is the C++ of version control systems

    My observation based on a few months of use is that git is the C++ of version control systems. This is ironic based on what Linus thinks of C++. However git is the powerful,-can-do-everything,-allows-you-to-shoot-yourself-in-the-foot-if-you-don't-know-enough-about-it version control system. People will be prejudiced against git because of its complexity. Some people will love it because of its complexity and power. Sometimes it's the best tool for the job, though.

    Git: it's good for you. Just like C++.

    1 comment:

    jay paul said...

    Very informative post. Keep up the good work. I would really look forward to your other posts

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